Image and text courtesy of the Carlsbad Historical Society http://www.carlsbadhistoricalsociety.com/ and
The book Windows on the Past, An Illustrated History of Carlsbad, California," by Susan Schnebelen Gutierrez.
Robert Kelly was a Carlsbad pioneer. He passed in 1890 and willed his property, the Rancho Agua Hedionda land grant, which was east of Carlsbad, to his brother Matthew’s nine children. From 1892 to 1896 the entire land grant was held in common, except for a section in the northwest section sold in 1893 to a Mr. Thorpe. The sale was necessary, bringing needed cash into the family and ensuring their survival during the drought years. Shortly after the property was sold, Mr. Thorpe resold the land to the Thum Brothers, who held the patent on Tanglefoot Fly Paper. The land became known as Thum Lands.
After the Rancho property was surveyed and divided into equitable parcels based on availability of grazing and water, each section was assigned an alphabetical letter. The letter was then placed on a slip of paper and as each heir drew his or her slip, the ownership of that parcel was transferred. Minnie Kelly Borden gave up her rights to draw from the slips of paper, in order to choose a preferred section of land, and two parcels were held in common. While the drought continued, a few of the Kelly heirs began homesteading land that adjoined their parcels to support their grazing livestock.
During the decade of drought that followed Robert Kelly's death, ranching and dry farming of beans, corn and hay became the only agricultural options. A few other entrepreneurial projects taken on were prospecting for oil and copper mining. While ranching was difficult during the dry years, the ranch families were in a better position regarding water than those that lived in town, since many of them lived near creeks or had already dug wells. For those who remained in town, digging a well meant the well level would be precariously close to the water level of their outhouses.
Image and text courtesy of the city of Chula Vista
In 1845, Rancho del la Nacion was used by the Spanish as grazing land for their cattle and horses until 1845 when it was granted to John Forster, the son-in-law of Mexican governor Pio Pico.
The United States claimed California following the Mexican-American war in 1847. Even though California became a state in 1850, land grants were allowed to continue as private property under American law.
Forster continued to operate the ranch for ten years until he sold it to a French developer. The land was then again sold to the Kimball brothers in 1868 for $30,000. Frank, Warren and Levi Kimball intended to develop the land into productive American-style cities and farms. Frank Kimball is also responsible for bringing the Santa Fe Railroad to San Diego, with its first terminus in National City.
Several directors of the Santa Fe Railroad and Colonel W.G. Dickerson, a professional town planner, formed the San Diego Land and Town Company. The company set out to develop lands of the National Ranch for new settlers. They issued promotional material to attract settlers that read: "Upon the best part of this tract, 5,000 acres are being subdivided into five acre lots with avenues and streets 80 feet in width running each way, the steam motor road passing though the center. This tract, known as Chula Vista, lies but a mile from the thriving place of National City." With this announcement, the boom of the 1880s was on.
These five-acre lots sold for $300 per acre in 1887. The purchaser was required to build a home within six months on the parcel. By 1889, ten houses were under construction and land sales were excellent. And thus, the City of Chula Vista was created.
A resident, James D. Schulyer, suggested the name Chula Vista for the town and the San Diego Land and Town Company adopted it. Chula Vista can be roughly translated in Spanish as "beautiful view."
Image and text courtesy of the Coronado Historical Society and Museum, https://coronadohistory.org/historic-coronado/
In 1821, land grants were issued for sections of California, thus creating the grand rancheros and haciendas of this period. On May 15, 1846, a land grant was issued to Don Pedro Carrillo by Governor Pio Pico for "the island or Peninsula in the Port of San Diego." Carrillo's ownership of the land was brief as he sold the property just five months later to the American captain of a trading ship, Bezer Simmons, for $1000.00.
The Pennisula was purchased by Elisha Babcock Jr., Hampton Story and Jacob Gruendike for $110,000 in 1885. Babcock then invited his brother-in-law, Heber Ingle, and Josephus Collett, a railroad stockholder, to become investors. Thus the founding fathers of what is today known as Coronado organized the Coronado Beach Company on April 7, 1886.
Work began immediately on the resort community that the Beach Co. investors envisioned. The men hired hundreds of laborers to begin the division and landscaping of lots, the laying of railroad tracks, and the construction of a water and irrigation system. In order to accommodate the growing number of people journeying to the peninsula, Babcock and Story created the San Diego and Coronado Ferry Company on April 16, 1886, with the ferry Coronado completing its first run on August 19th.
Babcock and Story leaked news of a proposed hotel on Coronado to the local newspapers which caused a great deal of excitement in the community of San Diego and beyond. With the increased publicity surrounding this grand venture came new interest in the community planning of the peninsula. Thus on November 13, 1886, the Coronado Beach Co. held an auction for the sale of lots ranging in price from $500.00 to $1600.00. By the end of the day, the Beach Company had sold 350 lots for a total of $110,000.00, which was, incidentally, the purchase price of the entire peninsula.
The resort community was now coming together with many new residents building homes and businesses. The investors then began to concentrate on the design and construction of the new hotel. The Beach Company hired James and Watson Reid as the architects of the Hotel del Coronado and work began almost immediately with the groundbreaking ceremony held on March 19, 1887. The Hotel del Coronado, completed in early 1888, officially opened its doors to the public on February 19th.
Image and text courtesy of http://www.delmarhistoricalsociety.org/olde_del_mar.html
On November 5, 1885, Jacob Taylor sold the first lot in his new Del Mar. It was Lot 14, Block 10, and Don Diego de Jesus Alvarado paid $600 for it, including a house. The deed contained a clause, “…this conveyance is made and accepted upon these express conditions that the said party of the second part [Don Diego] shall not use or employ the said land and premises or any part thereof for the purpose of carrying, exercising or conducting any saloon for the dealing of intoxicating liquor of any kind, either alcoholic, malt or fermented or any house of ill fame or for any species of gambling.” Lot 14, Block 10, became 144 10th Street, and it was used as a residence until 1985, when it was threatened with demolition to make way for new construction. After some negotiation, the owner donated the house to the Del Mar Historical Society and paid to have it moved to the City Hall parking lot where it sat for several years before being moved to the San Diego County Fairgrounds, where it sits today. During the Fair it is open to the public with docents to tell about its history
Image and text courtesy of the city of El Cajon https://www.cityofelcajon.us/discover-el-cajon/history and the El Cajon Historical Society https://elcajonhistory.org/index.html
California Governor Pio Pico in 1845 confiscated the lands of Mission San Diego de Alcala and granted the El Cajon Valley to Dona Maria Antonio Estudillo, wife of Don Miguel de Pedrorena. The grant included generally the present communities of Lakeside, Santee, Bostonia, Glenview, Johnstown, El Cajon, and part of Grossmont. Recorded history affords little evidence to establish a beginning date for either a permanent Spanish or American community in the valley. The Pedrorenas continued their residence in San Diego. Scattered homes of adobe construction were erected in the area during the mid 19th century. , although not always occupied. A school was established for six children in 1870 in a homestead at Park and Magnolia, indicating that a permanent American settlement had been established.
There were the crossroads from San Diego to points east and to the gold mining operations in Julian to the north. L Amaziah L. Knox built El Cajon's first commercial building at Magnolia and Main in 1876. Post World War ll's exploding urbanization along Mission Valley, through La Mesa and El Cajon was follow the American Civil War, migrations of settlers sought homesteads on the public lands of the West. However, the poorly defined boundaries and legal confusion of Pio Pico's Rancho Cajon land grant to the Pedrorenas were a source of considerable dispute. As a consequence, historical accounts frequently refer to these pioneering homesteaders by the less noble term of " squatters."
Lankershim bought the bulk of the Pedrorena's Rancho Cajon holdings in 1868. Within a few years the Big Box Valley was a flourishing produce center for citrus, avocados, grapes, and raisins.
The gold mining operations in Julian brought a steady trek of freight traffic hauling equipment and supplies and ore between San Diego and Julian. Knox corner was to be the nucleus of By the turn of the century the two blocks of Main Street, astride Magnolia, boasted two hotels, a general store, meat market, post office, pharmacy, harness shop, blacksmith shop, and sundry smaller shops and offices.
Image and text courtesy of Escondido History Center. https://www.escondidohistory.org/escondido-history
1843 Governor Micheltorena granted Escondido Valley to Juan Bautista Alvarado, who named the 12,653 acres El Rincon del Diablo.
1846 Battle with Mexico fought at San Pasqual, Dec. 6, 1846
1847 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
1850 California became a state
1855 After Alvarado died, his defendants started selling off his land and Judge Oliver Witherby of San Diego began buying portions of El Rincon del Diablo. It took him 10 years to purchase the entire ranch. Witherby established a gold mine southwest of the present intersection of El Dorado and Bear Valley Parkway.
1868 Witherby sold Rancho Rincon del Diablo to John, Josiah, and Matthew Wolfskill and Ed McGeary for $8,000. They raised grain and sheep.
1868 Nate Harrison, a free slave, homesteaded on the side of Palomar Mountain.
1870 Zena Sikes built adobe home (across from today’s Westfield Shopping
1874 Peter Cassou bought 320 acres in the valley.
1875 Major G. F. Merriam homesteaded 160 acres.
1883 Valley purchased by the Stockton Company, a group formed by 15 men from Central California. They planted grapes next to the Escondido Creek. It rained 50 inches which was too much for the grapes.
1884 Post office name changed from Apex to Escondido.
1885 Many people came to California. Among them were the Thomas brothers. Four of the brothers, Jacob Gruendike, and seven others formed the Escondido Land and Town Co. and purchased the 12,814 acre valley for $102,042. The sale was completed March 1.
1886 Construction began on the Escondido Hotel, a 100 room hotel on the east end of Grand Ave. The University of Southern California, with its Methodist backing, was given land to build a church on Grand Ave and a seminary at 3rd and Hickory. Graham & Steiner opened the first store in town. The Escondido Times, a local newspaper, began weekly publication. The Board of Trade was founded, renamed the Chamber of Commerce in 1895.
1887 Escondido Land & Town Co. invested in the railroad. Construction was started in March 1887 and completed January 1888 of the Oceanside to Escondido line. A load of wheat was the first freight to leave Escondido. The Lime Street School, in what will later become Grape Day Park, opened. The first stage travelled between San Diego and Escondido.
1888 The city of Escondido was incorporated on October 8. It consisted of 1854 acres.town, North County)
Image and pictures courtesy of La Mesa Historical Society. https://lamesahistory.com/about-us/
Pio Pico, the last governor of Mexican California, granted 58,000 acres of ex-Mission land to Santiago Arguello, commandante of the Presidio of San Diego. In 1868 stockman Robert Allison arrived in San Diego and purchased 4,000 acres from Arguello’s heirs. The land, which is now south La Mesa, was used to graze herds of cattle and sheep. Natural springs attracted stockman Robert Allison in 1869. “Allison Springs,” later renamed La Mesa Springs, prospered and grew after the arrival of the San Diego and Cuyamaca Eastern Railroad in 1889 (now the route of the MTDB Trolley). In 1885, the arrival of the railroad into San Diego sparked a land boom. In 1881, John Harbison purchased 4,000 acres from the Arguello estate (now north La Mesa), and in 1887, the San Diego Flume Company (formed to bring water from the Cuyamaca mountains) purchased Harbison’s land and filed a subdivision map naming it La Mesa Colony—with the original townsite at today’s 70th & El Cajon. In 1894 Lookout Ranch owner A.S. Crowder and Joseph Allison (one of Robert’s sons) flled the La Mesa Springs subdivision map. Streets were graded, the La Mesa Lemon Company Store and a blacksmith shop constructed near the La Mesa Springs Depot. Five- and 10-acre lemon ranches dotted the landscape. In 1902, Ed Fletcher and William Gross purchased the Villa Caro Ranch, which included the smaller peak on the north side of Mt. Helix. Fletcher named this mountain Grossmont, in honor of Gross. In 1910, the two men developed it as a picturesque artist’s colony.
Content courtesy of http://genealogytrails.com/cal/sdiego/lemon_grove.htm and https://www.lghistorical.org/
The 1893 Lemon Growers Association was the precursor to the growers’ cooperative Lemon Grove Fruit Growers Association, a powerhouse organization formed in 1908 to market its millions of tons of award-winning fruit
The site of Lemon Grove was owned by the Allison Brothers, who to have it settled, had it subdivided and laid out in parcels, bringing water in from the Flume Company's main at La Mesa by pipe to "the Grove," as residents call it.
Among early residents who were active in the development of Lemon Grove were Col. T. J. Bryan, George Maxwell and J. C. Braiden. From 1910 on J. H. Halley has been prominent among those working for the advancement of the town. The most of the fruit grown in this section is marketed through the Lemon Grove Fruit Growers' Association, of which Arthur Hay is president. Recently the growing of poultry has been an important industry at Lemon Grove.
The town has only one church, the
Congregational. which is used as a community church, all denominations worshipping in it.
The church was built in 1912. The Rev. F. W. Straw was pastor in 1921.
Content and Images courtesy of https://www.nationalcityca.gov/services/historic-sites#:~:text=Often%20characterized%20by%20its%20rich,his%20brothers%20Warren%20and%20Levi. City of National City and https://www.nationalcityca.gov/government/library/local-history National City Library, Kyle Morgan Local History Room. Above photo depicts the Santa Fe Rail Depot, 922 West 23rd Street
(California Southern Terminus Depot)
Built in 1882, the Santa Fe Rail Depot is the only original transcontinental railroad terminus in the United States that is still standing. On November 14, 1885, the first train left from National City to Waterman (renamed Barstow in 1886), 78 miles from its transcontinental link in San Bernadino. National City is in fact the second oldest city in San Diego County. Incorporated on September 17, 1887, National City was originally part of the 26,000-acre El Rancho de la Nacion, which was purchased in 1868 by Frank Kimball and his brothers Warren and Levi. The Kimballs cleared lands, built roads, constructed the City's first wharf and brought the railroad to the City.
Video, content and history courtesy of Oceanside Historical Society http://www.oceansidehistoricalsociety.org/
In June 2020 the Oceanside Public Library hosted an online presentation about some lesser known historical facts and tidbits about Oceanside, including: a scandalous reputation of Oceanside’s early boarding house, square dancing at the pier, a rumor that Al Capone was going to purchase the Rancho Santa Margarita, a newly discovered house designed by Architect Irving Gill, and what may be the first business in Oceanside owned by an African American woman. You can watch the presentation
Content courtesy of the City of Poway https://poway.org/156/Poway-History and Poway Historical Society https://powayhistoricalsociety.com/poway-through-the-years/
The name of the beautiful valley of Poway (Pauwai) is derived from the language of the Diegueno and Luiseno Indians who roamed the area for several hundred years before the Spaniards came. Traces of these Native Americans still remain.
Documents of Mission San Diego de Alcala record the name of the valley as "Paguay" as early as 1828. Although there is a disagreement on the meaning of "Paguay," the generally accepted translation signifies "the meeting of little valleys" or "end of the valley. First Settlement:
Philip Crosthwaite is believed to have been the first white settler in the Poway area. He built an adobe house and took up ranching in 1859.
A sufficient number of settlers had come into the valley by 1869 to warrant a post office. Castanos Paine, whose ranch was a way stop for stages from the north and from San Diego, applied to Washington for an appointment as postmaster in 1870. The application stated that there were no post offices located between San Diego and San Bernardino at that time. The appointment was granted, but the Postmaster General crossed out the words "Paine's Ranch" and substituted "Poway," thus settling once and for all the spelling of the name.
The 1880s saw a prosperous and well-populated valley. Families were settling on farms, planting orchards and vineyards, and raising grain. Dairying was profitable, as was beekeeping. By 1887, there were about 800 people in the Poway area.
By the early 1900s, the hardiest of the settlers had managed to cope with drought and transportation problems. They had firmly established themselves in their chosen valley and had found a good and satisfying life. Poway became known for its exceptionally fine peaches and for its vineyards. Grain and alfalfa were other major products. At the close of the 19th century, fewer than 1,000 people were living in Poway.
Content courtesy of https://sandiegohistory.org/
More settlers bring the total population to more than six hundred residents. Presidio families begin to establish homes in what becomes Old Town San Diego. The adobes of Maria Reyes Ibanez at the corner of present-day Juan and Wallace Streets, Rafaela Serrano on Juan Street, and Pio Pico next door are all finished by 1824. Between 1827 and 1830 several other structures are built around Old Town plaza including those of Juan Rodriguez, Jose Antonio Estudillo, Juan Bandini, Dona Tomasa Alvarado, and Rosario Aguilar. (From “A Brief History of Old Town” by Iris W. Engstrand and Ray Brandes.)
Mexico wins independence from Spain and San Diego comes under Mexican rule for about 25 years. First known home (today’s Presidio Hills Golf Course golf shop) is built in Old Town.
San Diego becomes the unofficial capital of Upper and Lower California, because of the preference of new Governor Jose Maria Echeandia. The Presidio, with its dwindling garrison, goes into significant decline.
Richard Henry Dana (1815-1882) arrives in San Diego as a common seaman aboard the brig Pilgrim. Dana’s book “Two Years Before the Mast”, published in 1841, is one of America’s most famous accounts of life at sea. It contains a detailed account of hide-curing, woodcutting, local wildlife and rattlesnakes during his four months in San Diego.
New Governor Pio Pico orders land confiscation and sale of the California missions. California is divided into 2 districts; southern district from San Luis Obispo south.
May 13, 1846
United States declares war on Mexico, invades Mexico from the east, reaching San Diego in December.
December 6, 1846
General Stephen Watts Kearny’s “Army of the West” enagages General Andres Pico and his Mexican-Californian army in a bloody battle at the Valley of San Pasqual, near present-day Escondidio. The United States suffers many casualties, including nineteen American dead and many more wounded. The Mexicans are reported to have six soldiers killed at the battle, and many more wounded as well. Although the war for California is won by the United States, the Battle of San Pasqual proves to be an important victory for the Californios.
February 2, 1848
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed, ending the war between Mexico and the United States. Treaty also sets the boundary between US and Mexico which arbitrarily divides the two countries (Native peoples are the most impacted, since historically and by language groupings they are one group, suddenly cast into two sections.)
San Diego County is created as one of California’s original 27 counties. It includes much of the Colorado and Mojave deserts, extending from the Pacific Ocean to the Colorado River and including all of present-day Imperial County and much of San Bernardino and Riverside counties.
March 18, 1850
William Heath Davis purchases 160 acres in “New Town” (now downtown San Diego). His home, originally located at State and Market Streets, is the oldest surviving structure in San Diego’s New Town. Built on the East Coast and shipped around Cape Horn, it is a well-preserved example of a prefabricated “salt box” family home, now housing a museum at 4th and Island in the Gaslamp district.
March 27, 1850
An Act to Incorporate the City of San Diego is passed. First election establishes government by a Common Council and elected mayor. San Diego’s first Mayor is Joshua Bean, brother of the famous Judge Roy Bean.
September 9, 1850
California is granted statehood by the United States of America.
Warner’s Pass (San Pasqual) road is declared a public road by the San Diego County Board of Supervisors, serving as a main road between San Diego and the Colorado River until 1868, when shorter routes to the south, leading through the pass at Jacumba, began to be used by stagecoaches.
Whaley House, built by Thomas Whaley, is the oldest brick structure in southern California. In addition to being the home of the Whaley family, it served variously as granary, store, court-house, and school and as the town’s first theater.
August 13, 1857
The schooner Loma is launched, the first boat to be built in San Diego shipyards.
James Birch establishes the “Jackass” mail route between San Diego and San Antonio; passengers must traverse the Oriflamme Canyon and Colorado Desert on muleback. Stage driver James E. Mason brings first overland mail to town and decides to settle here.
April 14, 1865
Abraham Lincoln is assasinated by John Wilkes Booth, while watching a performance of “Our American Cousin” at Ford’s Theater in Washington, D.C.
First public school house opens in San Diego. Mary Chase Walker is its first teacher. She receives a salary of $65/month. After eleven months she quits teaching and marries Ephraim Morse, president of the school board.
April 15, 1867
Alonzo Erastus Horton arrives from San Francisco on the paddle-wheel steamer Pacific. On that same day he gives the County Clerk $10 to cover the cost of a new election for the Board of Trustees, which is held on April 27th. On May 10, with local merchant Ephraim Morse as auctioneer, Horton acquires 800 acres of land, which would become New San Diego, for $265. Horton returns to San Francisco and opens a land sales office on Montgomery Street.
Kimball brothers buy 26,400 acres of Rancho de la Nacion and lay out National City.
Feb 15, 1868
Ephraim Morse presents a resolution to the Board of Trustees of San Diego that land be set aside for a city park. Morse, Thomas Bush and Alonzo Horton select the land now known as Balboa Park.
October 10, 1868
San Diego’s Weekly Union publishes its first edition near the Plaza in Old Town. Today’s San Diego Union-Tribune would result from a merger of The San Diego Union and The Evening Tribune, founded Dec. 2, 1895. John D. Spreckels purchases the Union in 1890 and the Tribune in 1901. Spreckels’ estate sells the newspapers in 1928 to Ira Clifton Copley of Illinois.
April 8, 1869
First post office is established in New San Diego. Dr. Jacob Allen is appointed postmaster.
Albert Seeley purchases the run-down Bandini Adobe in Old Town and spends six months in renovation of the old home to create the Cosmopolitan Hotel, building the Seeley Stables next door.
Alonzo Horton completes a wharf at the end of 5th Avenue, at a cost of about $45,000. On March 24, Horton sells $5,500 worth of commercial and residential lots in one day. His new town begins to boom. Horton Hall opens around Christmas 1869. This two-story brick building on the southeast corner of Sixth and F streets has shops downstairs and a meeting hall with 400 seats upstairs, serving as downtown’s first public theater. Horton Hall burns in 1897 and is torn down shortly thereafter.
City of San Diego population is 2300. San Diego County population is 4951.
Black prospector Fred Coleman discovers placer gold near present-day Julian, setting off local “gold fever”. First lode mine, the George Washington Mine, is discovered in February of 1870. By 1875, mines in the area produce over $2 million in gold. By 1876, many of the mines are closed, though significant gold production continues until about 1911.
Feb 4, 1870
San Diego becomes the first city west of the Mississippi to set aside land for an urban park. This 1440 acre tract becomes the site for City Park, now Balboa Park.
Alonzo Horton opens his Horton House hotel on D Street (now Broadway) between Third and Fourth Streets (where the U. S. Grant Hotel now stands). He sets aside a half block across the street as a plaza for his visitors (now Horton Plaza).
October 24, 1870
George P. Marston and his 20-year-old son, George White Marston, arrive in San Diego. Young George takes a job as a clerk at Horton House – eventually becomes a successful businessman, civic leader and founder of the San Diego Historical Society.
Video courtesy of San Marcos Historical Society http://www.smhistory.org/
Content and image courtesy of Santee Historical Society http://santeehistorica https://www.cityofsanteeca.gov/how-do-i/santee-s-history
lsociety.org/ and City of Santee Prior to joining the Union on September 9, 1850, California was governed at different times by both Spain and Mexico. Today, remains of the Spanish influence can still be seen in the historic Old Mission Dam site at the west entrance of the City.
Established in 1779 under the direction of Father Junipero Serra, and built by the Kumeyaay Indians, the dam provided water to the land of Mission de Alcala. The Spanish parceled this region into land grants and divided the grants among Spanish soldiers in payment for services rendered. Years later, the land was sold to American settlers. George A. Cowles (Kohls), a founding father, was one of the local buyers. Cowles bought 4,000 acres in 1877 to develop his vineyards. He also introduced a number of tree species to this area, such as pomegranate and magnolia trees.
Known as Cowleston, the town was linked to the Cuyamaca Railroad at Cowles Station. A landmark that bears this pioneer's name is Cowles Mountain, at the southwest end of the Santee Valley.
Three years after Cowle's death in 1887, Jennie Cowles married Milton Santee, a realtor and surveyor. In 1891, Jennie Cowles Santee received permission to operate the post office under her husband's name. That same year, Cowleston's first school, Cowles School in the Cowles School District, was built.
In 1893, the community followed her lead and changed the town's name to Santee. The school and the school district also adopted the new town name.
Hosmer P. McKoon came to the Santee area in 1885 and purchased 9,543 acres, which he called Fanita Ranch in honor of his wife Fannie. Over the ensuing years, segments of the ranch were sold to new arrivals.
In 1898, the Scripps family of newspaper fame took possession of Fanita Ranch, a 7,000 acre parcel. It was used to raise cattle and as a country resort by the Scripps family. During World War II, 2,300 acres of the ranch, west of present Santee, were acquired by the federal government and used as a military training ground. In 1958, another 4,300 acres were purchased by a development firm, the Carlton Company (later Santee - Carlton Company). Its early president was Bill Mast, after whom Mast Boulevard is now named. During the ensuing 22 years, the area's population expanded from less than 2,000 residents in 1950 to 25,750 in 1970